The Paradox of Employee–Volunteer Interchangeability in a Supported Social Enterprise




Employee Volunteer, Interchangeability, Paradox, Social Enterprise


This research examines the paradox of employee–volunteer interchangeability as a core resource in a nonprofit social enterprise organization. Specifically, the research investigates a) how the human and social capital derived from employee–volunteer interchangeability drives strategic intent, and b) how challenges associated with employee–volunteer interchangeability hinder strategic intent. The research provides insight into how employees and volunteers value outcomes that are dependent on the inherent paradox of interchangeability. The findings reveal that while employee– volunteer interchangeability can be a core resource, a social value, and a driver of competitive advantage, it can also hinder organizational strategies and growth—especially for nonprofit social enterprise organizations.

Author Biographies

  • Kunle Akingbola, Lakehead University

    Kunle Akingbola is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Business Administration at Lakehead University. His research focuses on the complex interactions that shape employee behaviour, human resources management, and change in nonprofit and healthcare organizations.

  • Suwimon Phaetthayanan, University of Toronto

    Suwimon Phaetthayanan is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Toronto.






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